Bedding Construction and Flow Capacity of Vitrified Clay Pipelines C.E.G. Bland (1995)

The bedding construction section of this booklet will help engineers who decide not to apply individual structural design from first principles to each sewer. The fill load tables have been calculated using Marston theory, and the surcharge load tables have been calculated by the Boussinesq Equation.

The load tables are in two sections. The first comprises 20 tables of design loads and the required minimum bedding load factors for the combination of fill loads and loads due to two types of traffic wheel loads on 100mm to 600mm diameter vitrified clay pipes. The second consists of two tables of fill loads, and two tables of loads acting upon the pipeline due to traffic wheel loads acting on the surface of the fill.

The flow tables in this booklet will assist the designer of foul and surface water drainage schemes to size pipelines hydraulically by the use of the uniform flow equation derived by Colebrook and White. The information is in tabular form and the range of 100mm to 1000mm diameter pipes is covered.

There are eight tables in the flow section of the booklet. The first two are for use in the design of chemical drainage for pipes flowing full with ks values of 0.03mm and 0.06mm. The third table is for use in the design of foul or combined systems and is for pipes flowing at a proportional depth of 0.75. The ks value of 0.3mm is applicable to velocities above 1.5m/sec, the ks value of 0.6mm is applicable to velocities greater then 1.0m/sec and less than or equal to 1.5m/sec and a ks value of 1.5mm is used for lower velocities. The fourth table is also for foul or combined systems using the same ks values, but for pipes flowing full. The fifth, sixth and seventh tables are for the design of surface water systems flowing full with ks values of 0.3mm, 0.6mm and 1.5mm. The last table gives proportional velocities and discharges in pipes running part full.

CPDA – Bedding construction and flow capacity of vitrified clay pipelines

The Problem of Hydrogen Sulphide in Sewers. 2nd edition Dr. R.D. Pomeroy Ed. A.G. Boon (1992)

In editing this 2nd Edition of Dr. Pomeroy’s well known booklet, Arthur Boon, himself an acknowledged authority on the subject in the UK, has incorporated the results of research carried out since its first publication and brought in some additional detail. The booklet describes the formation and effects of hydrogen sulphate in sewers. The hydrogen sulphate is oxidised by micro-organisms on walls of sewers to sulphuric acid which can cause corrosion of cement-bonded materials. It sets out the strategies which may be adopted to obviate the problem. Predictive equations are given so that analysis may be made of conditions where the hydrogen sulphide can occur.

WAA IGN No. 4-11-02 On Revised Bedding Factors for Vitrified Clay Pipes (1988)

The Water Authorities Association Information and Guidance Note No. 4-11-02 sets out the recommended revised bedding factors for vitrified clay pipes, agreed as the culmination of a major research programme on the structural design of buried vitrified clay pipelines. Recommendations are also given on design methods and factor of safety.

An explanatory leaflet is provided with the IGN, which explains some of the economic implications of the increased bedding factors.

The Use of Clay Flue Liners and Terminals (1996)

This guide shows good practice for the design and construction of flues using clay flue liners and terminals. It is divided into easy to use sections and is illustrated by photographs and diagrams. Laying Vitrified Clay Drainage Systems (1995) This revised and extended pocket sized booklet is ideal for use on site. Its 48 pictures cover the whole process of laying vitrified clay drainage systems in an easy-to-follow sequence. All aspects are illustrated, from delivery right through to testing the laid pipeline. A brief description of each activity is included, which is compatible with the guidance given in the Code of Practice for Drainage, BS 8301 and the British Standard for Sewerage BS 8005.

A simplified bedding construction table is included, covering pipe size up to 600mm diameter and showing the depth ranges over which clay pipes can be laid on a full range of beddings. A full description of the procedures for water and air tests is given together with acceptance criteria and possible reasons for failure.

 The Environmental Aspects of Clay Drainage – click here to download

This publication summaries research into the environmental impact of producing pipes from clay and other materials and other relevant environmental considerations.

Technical notes 1-9

Technical note 9 – Laying Vitrified Clay Pipes and Recycled Material deals with reclaimed materials suitable for use in bedding clay pipes. Please also note BRE Digest 433 – “Recycled aggregates” and research paper 815 – use of Recycled Aggregates as Clay Pipe bedding

The specification design and construction of drainage and sewerage systems using vitrified clay pipes (2001)

Using updated material previously published within a range of smaller CPDA booklets, this guide provides a one-stop source for the bulk of information needed for the specification, design and construction of drains and sewers using vitrified clay pipes and fittings.

Hydraulic and structural design is covered and trench excavation, pipe laying, trench back filling, inspection and testing are detailed.

This booklet is not designed to replace the advice given in the standards themselves to which reference should be made for detailed guidance.

CPDA – The specification design and construction of drainage and sewerage systems using vitrified clay pipes